Innovation in the development of biofuels

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The rising presence of CO2 in the atmosphere is not a new problem and it is widely known.
In 2019, a new record amount of CO2 was recorded in the atmosphere at around 409 parts per million (ppm).
Carbon emissions have been increasing every year with an increase of approximately 12 billion tons of emissions over the period of 1990 to 20201. The good news is that many researchers have exploited the fact that CO2 is a very useful precursor in the production of more sustainable fuels, which can address not only the emissions issue, but also the issue of the sustainability of fossil fuels.
There have been some cases where the conversion of CO2 to fuel has been carried out using bacteria.
In one example from Columbia University, a type of bacteria called N. europaea uses energy from ammonia and CO2 to make liquid biofuels inside of a reverse microbial fuel cell (R-MFC).
Usually, biofuels would be made from biomass, which gets its energy from converting solar energy through photosynthesis, but this method skips that energy-inefficient step.
Electricity can put ammonia back into the system when the ammonia...

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