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Sustainable aviation fuel taking off

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Biofuel is growing in popularity as an alternative source of liquid fuel according to its renewability, desirable chemical characteristics, and lower lifecycle emissions.
Leading up to the COVID-19 pandemic, aviation fuel consumption was about 343 billion litres per year, with just 0.015 billion litres coming from renewable sources.
The aviation market's share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is expected to rise to 5% by 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario (Shahabuddin et al., 2020).
Five sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) manufacturing paths are officially recommended by the Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels (ASTM D7566) standard (Shahabuddin et al., 2020).
(i)Hydrogenated esters and fatty acids (HEFA) fuels generated from used algae, vegetable oils, animal fats, and cooking oil (HEFA-SPK);
(ii) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels originated from solid biomass resources (for example, wood particulates) (FT-SPK);
(iii) FT fuels containing aromatics derived from solid biomass resources (– for example, wood particulates) (FT-SKA);
(iv) Fermented hydroprocessed sugar synthetic iso-paraffin (SIP), previously known...

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