Opportunities within chemical looping combustion for biofuels industry
To decrease the dependency on fossil fuel and at the same time decrease the emitted greenhouse gases (GHG), renewable energy sources are required.
According to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), negative CO2 emissions are needed to meet the targets of the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to “well below” 2°C.
To achieve negative CO2 emissions, the gas released during the thermal conversion of biogenic feedstocks needs to be captured and stored.
Several technologies exist which can separate the CO2 from the exhaust gas of a thermal conversion process such as post-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion.
The drawback with post-combustion is that it is associated with an energy penalty resulting in about 10-30% loss of total electrical output of the power plant.
Also oxy-fuel combustion is associated with energy costs since the oxygen needs to be separated at cryogenic temperatures in large air separation units (ASUs).