Pollution and air quality have been a major issue for discussion in various countries.
In Pakistan, urbanisation and industrialisation have led to an increase in vehicle and factory emissions.
Air pollution is strongly linked to health issues and according to (WHO, 2018), it is a major cause of various deadly diseases such as cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular illness, leading to an annual mortality rate of 4 million deaths. With such dreadful consequences, the search for alternative fuels has begun. Biofuels (such as biodiesel and bioethanol) have emerged as a renewable candidate to replace fossil fuels.
Biodiesel is produced via the transesterification of long chain fatty acids to an alkyl, in the presence of a catalyst.
This process was first described by George Chavanne in 1937, when he successfully replaced the glycerol in a triacylglycerol molecule with methanol; producing 3 molecules of fatty acid methyl esters which came to be known as biodiesel.
Both complete biodiesel and biodiesel-petroleum blends can successfully run diesel combustion engines. This makes it suitable to use in cars, buses, and heavy trucks.
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