Clean energy journey

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Fossil fuel resources are dwindling. Production of biofuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks is necessary to meet the energy demand in a world where fossil fuels are increasingly becoming scarce and more expensive.
The global attention for the alternative fuel to decrease the dependence on fossil fuels and reduce the carbon footprint led to biodiesel production. As a renewable fuel, biodiesel has been receiving increase in attention because of the rising petroleum prices and due to its environmental advantages.
Biodiesel is a domestically produced, clean-burning, renewable substitute for petroleum diesel. Using biodiesel as a vehicle fuel increases energy security, improves air quality and the environment, and provides safety benefits1.
Biodiesel reduces net greenhouse effects, and its use has become mandatory in many countries. It is mainly produced by the transesterification of fats and vegetable oils in the presence of a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide [NaOH] or potassium hydroxide [KOH]) by a short chain alcohol (usually methanol), leading to a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) to be used as a biofuel.
Vegetable oils (mainly soybean in...

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