logo
Volume 8, Issue 6
Published: November 10, 2014
Pick of the crop

The key to commercial success of solid state fermentations compared to liquid substrates or slurries is improving process efficiency through R&D work, which can be carefully monitored and controlled using bioreactors, either at the initial process development stage, or as on-going scale-down experiments alongside fullscale production runs. One clear problem with solid state fermentation compared to typical liquidphase cultivation in stirred tank bioreactors is a lack of a standard, scalable design, as the vessels used vary greatly in size and type. These include rotating drums, stirring systems in conventional tanks and flat trays in a housing for environmental control. The substrates also cover a range of possibilities from wood to fruit waste. The biological active part can be either an enzyme and/ or organisms such as bacteria yeasts or fungi, depending on the application or stage of the multi-step process.

To read the article in full you have to be a subscriber...
Further Articles in this Issue:
The renewable fuel industry has had its share of struggles when it comes to planning a confident growth trajectory. Regulatory uncertainty is one of the primary culprits that makes it difficult for renewable... [Read more]
In recent years, the biofuels industry has experienced a number of intermittent setbacks, including the unpredictability of government subsidies, the emergence of the food versus fuel debate, and the introduction... [Read more]
In November 2013, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed waiving a substantial portion of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandated volumes for 2014 and reducing the use of biofuels in... [Read more]
In January 2015, Germany will change the country’s commitment framework from a renewable energybased quota, which currently sits at 6.25% and remains unchanged from 2010, to a greenhouse gas (GHG)... [Read more]
The global commodities markets have been at the centre of a near perfect storm of bearish factors in recent weeks. The strong US dollar coupled with a booming US shale oil output has hit crude oil prices... [Read more]
Soya methyl esters biodiesel spot prices in the US dropped 10.5% or more in the third quarter to fouryear lows despite higher implied demand for distillate fuels. These were pressured by a 10.9% decline... [Read more]
In June this year, renewable chemicals and advanced biofuels company Gevo started the coproduction of isobutanol and ethanol at its existing ethanol plant in Luverne, Minnesota, US. The plant uses three... [Read more]
On 1 May this year, small-scale biodiesel producer Springboard Biodiesel opened the doors of its first fully automated, zerowaste biodiesel production facility in Chico, California at a grand opening.... [Read more]
Many governments insist on finding new solutions for problems that have already been solved, and in doing so, end up going round in circles. This is happening at present on both sides of the Atlantic,... [Read more]
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) writes and enforces regulations concerning the environment based on laws made by Congress. Biodiesel is one of the first advanced biofuels to achieve commercial-scale... [Read more]
The US and Europe have long realised the benefits of biofuels, but the Middle East is quickly catching up. For years, the Middle East depended heavily on gulf countries for fuel. This gave the US and Europe... [Read more]
In 2003, less than three million gallons of ethanol were produced. Today the US has a total installed capacity approaching 15 billion gallons per year; nearly 500% the production of a decade ago. With... [Read more]
North America is keenly focused on next generation corn oil extraction methods to meet a growing demand for biodiesel feedstock, as well as animal feed supplements. Biodiesel producers, who are currently... [Read more]
Aerobic fermentation is becoming an increasingly common application in the production of biofuel from sugars. Although the goals are similar to other fermentation processes, the different feedstock rheology... [Read more]
Biomass-based production is becoming increasingly important in the Finnish and European bioeconomies. Responsibly produced wood-based biofuels are a worthwhile alternative, reducing traffic emissions and... [Read more]
Companies generally pre-treat their feedstocks using sulphuric acid, an acidic polymer-based resin or enzymatic process. Lower grade feedstock does not always improve companies’ bottom line. Yield... [Read more]
Most biodiesel is derived from triglycerides or fats, which are purified and reacted with alcohol to create fuel. Producers must decide whether to remove all of these problematic components at the beginning... [Read more]
I am sure I once heard that if everyone in China jumped up and down at the same time a small Earth tremor would be felt far across other continents. Well maybe it’s time for everyone in the biofuels... [Read more]
Although plantbased fuels are renewable, create less combustion damage to the environment and support agricultural development, the biofuels industry needs to avoid conflicts with food crop energy farming.... [Read more]
Jatropha may finally be able to shrug off its earlier disappointments as a biofuel crop as scientific progress in the last decade signal light at the end of the tunnel. Breeders have begun to reveal yields... [Read more]
Similar to many other industries, fuel ethanol producers have focused on water conservation, due to the increasing risks of water scarcity and wastewater disposal limitations to their operations and initiatives... [Read more]
The use of biofuels and biochemicals as alternatives to petroleum-based products has attracted much attention over the last few years. This attractiveness stems from their classification as sustainable... [Read more]
Due to the predicted increase in biodiesel consumption and the ongoing discussion regarding first generation biodiesel processes, technology developer BDI is continuing with the ongoing search for new... [Read more]
Air is detrimental to many materials. Not only can the oxygen in the air cause product degradation, but moisture, dirt, hydrocarbons and exhaust gases can negatively affect the raw materials stored in... [Read more]
The key to commercial success of solid state fermentations compared to liquid substrates or slurries is improving process efficiency through R&D work, which can be carefully monitored and controlled... [Read more]
Bioethanol shares 80 million tonnes annual consumption around the world. However, some of the inherent properties of ethanol, such as high water solubility and low energy density, set the limit of its... [Read more]
Despite its relatively short life, the modern biofuels industry has experienced amazing technological and market transformations. We have seen shifting political landscapes, a worldwide financial recession,... [Read more]
With demand for drop-in hydrocarbon fuels growing, the industry is looking to convert a broad range of biomass and organic residues to fungible liquid ‘drop-in’ hydrocarbon fuels fully compatible... [Read more]
Sustainable growth of the Australian biofuel industry has been in reverse since 2011. Over the past four years there have been at least four or five ‘structural’ changes to the support schemes... [Read more]